Playing, Gaming, Working and Labouring: Framing the Con-cepts and Relations
Keywords: Play, Playing, Work, Working, Game, Games, Gaming, Labour, Labor, Labouring, Laboring, Typology, Marx, Marxism, Autonomist Marxism, General Intellect, Post-Fordism, Cognitive Capitalism, Peer Production, Situationist International, Critical theory
AbstractThe aim of this article is to define the concepts of playing, working, gaming, and labouring, through a literature study, and to construct a typology. This typology will be used to create a field model that is structured by the horizontal parameters of qualitative-quantitative (characteristics) and the vertical parameters of activity-result (in focus). It is shown how this model can be used to visualise different theoretical positions in empirical material, which connects to the concepts and their relations. Working and labouring are distinguished into a trans-historical and a historical, capitalist, category, and likewise playing and gaming, where the former is the trans-historical category and the latter the historical one. The main focus of the article, since working and labouring is well covered within the critical Marxist tradition, is on playing and its relation to working, with the aim of understanding and criticising the concept of playbour.
Philosophers of the World Unite! Theorising Digital Labour and Virtual Work - Definitions, Dimensions and Forms
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